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Hair Loss

Menopause Hair Loss Natural Solutions

I'm able to help most, but not all hair loss and menopause and pre-menopause after the age of 35. Briefly, the most common reasons are:

1. Xenoestrogen exposure from mostly cosmetics and toiletries, and laundry detergent on the skin, reduce your sensitivity to thyroid hormone. Eliminating xenoestrogens from your skin, and taking topical transdermal progesterone is the solution for this case.

2. Iodine deficiency with bromine toxicity leads to iodine being displaced by bromine. The thyroid hormone may have bromine in place of iodine rendering the thyroid hormone impotent.

3. Certain chemicals can block thyroid hormone at the receptor level or alter thyroid hormone levels. The classic example is fire retardant found in your couch.

4. Certain chemicals can be toxic and poison the rapidly reproducing hair follicle. For instance, chemotherapy makes your hair fall out. There are other common chemicals used in the house that are similarly, although perhaps less toxic than chemotherapy. The classic example is pesticide.

5. Malabsorption in the gut can prevent the absorption of nutrients needed to maintain healthy hair. Vegetarians may be extremely vulnerable. Allergies known and unknown triggered by fear, stress, anxiety can cause malabsorption the gut. Bad bacteria colonizing the gut can also cause malabsorption. Parasites can also cause malabsorption.

6. When progesterone levels fall, after the age of 35 for most cycles but not all cycles due to ovarian follicle failure the body reacts by producing more adrenal corticosteroid, in particular androstendione. Androstendione tells the body to become male in character. Therefore, male pattern hair loss may result. Supplementing with transdermal progesterone will cause androstendione levels to gradually fall over a period of 4 to 6 months and hair growth will eventually resume. [1,2]

Let us examine each one of these reasons in greater detail to enable you to stop hair loss.

Table Of Contents

 

1. Menopause Hair Loss

2. Xenoestrogens Depress Thyroid Hormone Sensitivity

3. Chemical Xenoestrogens - Foreign Extrogens

4. Phytoestrogens - Plant Estrogens

5. Main Route of Entry of Xenoestogens to the Human Body is the Skin for the Human Body

6. Iodine Deficiency and Bromine Toxicity Leads to Thinning Hair

7. Chemicals Can Block Thyroid Hormone at the Receptor Level

8. Toxic Chemicals May Cause Hair to Fall Out

9. Malnutrition Causing Your Hair to Fall Out

10. Male Pattern Hair Loss Due to Anovulatory Cycles after the Age of 35

11. Stopping Hair Loss in Six Easy Steps

Xenoestrogens Depress Thyroid Hormone Sensitivity

Xenoestrogens are chemicals or herbs that mimic estrogen. These herbs or chemicals do not alter your estrogen levels, but they look like estrogen to your body. Your own estradiol in synergy with xenoestrogens act together to cause estrogen dominance. Estrogen dominance is simply too much herbsr.jpgestrogen as coined by John Lee M.D. Also, xenoestrogens have estrogen like qualities when they are decoded by your body's receptors, but they are not really estradiol. Xenoestrogens have strange properties related to estrogen, like breast cancer. In general, your body will interpret the message of xenoestrogens as estrogen like, but the message may be different.

Estrogen tells the body to get ready for pregnancy and to build up fat reserves. The way estrogen gets the body to build up the fat reserves is to slow down the metabolism of the body. Estrogen does not affect thyroid hormone levels. Too much estrogen affects the thyroid receptor sensitivity to your own thyroid hormones. In other words, you become less sensitive to thyroid hormone. If you take more estrogen in the form of xenoestrogens, you have normal thyroid hormone levels, but you are less sensitive to your thyroid hormone. The net result is that the woman appears to be hypothyroid. You begin to feel sluggish. You have a lower temperature. Your eyebrows may begin to thin. But most of all you gain weight easily, despite dieting and exercise. Your hair begins to thin. Typically, the woman goes to see her doctor. The doctor notices she looks hypothyroid. He orders a thyroid hormone test. The thyroid hormone test comes back normal or low normal. The doctor will either dismiss the patient in frustration, or give the patient some thyroid hormone in the form of Synthyroid, Armour thyroid, or Biothyroid. Sometimes this extra thyroid hormone works. However, most the time, this extra thyroid hormone pill doesn't do anything for the patient. The real culprit is NOT the thyroid hormone levels. The real culprit is the exposure to xenoestrogens causing decreased sensitivity to thyroid hormone.

Chemical Xenoestrogens - Foreign Extrogens

For instance, oxybenzone is a xenoestrogen. Oxybenzone is an ingredient in half the sunscreens in use in America. Oxybenzone penetrates the skin prettycoralr.jpggets into the body and mimics estrogen. Some research studies have shown oxybenzone linked to endometriosis and lower birth weight in newborn girls according ewg.org. Read about the chemical oxybenzone at www.ewg.org.  Note the two benzene rings in the chemical formula.  Benzene rings usually fit into the estrogen receptor.

Shlumpf, a researcher, found that oxybenzone or benzophenone increased rat uterine size, and acted like estrogen in MCF-7 cells. If the benzophenone increases rat uterine size, then this indicates estrogen like activity. The rat uterine size test is a real live (in vivo) test of estrogen activity. Her research showed that many of the frequently used ingredients in sunscreens have hormone activity at the concentrations used in real life products that you can find in the grocery store. She concluded that these chemicals target both the reproductive organs and brains of baby animals and likely human babies as well.[3]

In October of 2015, a research article, showed that oxybenzone was a photo-toxicant to baby corals. Oxybenzone transformed the embryo baby corals from a swimming state to a deformed stationary state. Oxybenzone caused the baby coral to be encased in its own skeleton. The lethal concentration at which 20% of the population of 7 different species of coral died varied from 0.062 micrograms/liter to 8 micrograms/liter. Unfortunately, the water concentration of oxybenzone around beaches with tourists using sunscreen was 75 micrograms/liter to 1,400 micrograms/liter in the U.S. Virgin Islands. In the Hawaiian Islands, the beach water had concentrations of 0.8 micrograms/liter to 19.2 micrograms per liter. In other words, the tourists used sunscreen containing oxybenzone. The tourists went swimming. The oxybenzone washes off in the beach water. The beach water with oxybenzone at EXTREMELY LOW amounts kills baby coral. One of the mechanisms how the baby coral is killed, is hormone disruption. Thus, the destruction of U.S. Virgin Islands reefs and Hawaiian reefs can be traced to the minute amounts of sunscreen being washed off of sunscreen slathered tourists. I find this to be extremely surprising [4].

Phytoestrogens - Plant Estrogens

In addition to chemical estrogen hormone disruptors, there are also plant hormone disruptors, namely phytoestrogens. For instance, soy infant sunflowerr.jpgformula is controversial among pediatricians because of the hormonal disruptive effects. In the USA, soy formula may be bought over the counter, but in Europe, soy infant formula is prescription only. Mice exposed to coumestrol and genistein develop adverse reproduction problems when they grow up. Fewer pregnancies, fewer mice babies, infertility, strange menstrual cycles were all reported.[5-13] You may read about phytoestrogens at Tulane University's Hormone Disruption Center.

Genistein is found in soy. Coumestrol is found in sunflower seeds. Over 20 different phytohormones have been described in over 300 plants. Some of these phytoestrogens are thought to be beneficial as well. The lower rate of breast cancer in China and Japan is thought to be due to eating soy in the form of tofu.

Both chemical estrogens and plant estrogens can lower your body’s sensitivity to thyroid hormone. These xenoestrogens do NOT affect the thyroid hormone levels in your body. These xenosestrogens affect your body’s sensitivity to thyroid hormone.

Main Route of Entry of Xenoestogens to the Human Body is the Skin for the Human Body

The main route of entry for the human body seems to be the skin. Anything on the skin is 10 times the oral dose compared to an oral dose because anything put on the skin bypasses the liver and goes straight into the body. Anything taken orally is 90% first pass inactivated by the liver. Prescription estrogen patches may be found in the drug store. Put the estrogen patch on the skin, and the patch delivers estrogen to the body. Your shampoo contains herbs that mimic estrogen. Put the shampoo on your hair and scalp and these herbs are absorbed through your scalp. Your shampoo with its estrogenic herbs may be suppressing your thyroid sensitivity and causing hypothyroidism and causing your hair to fall out. Ditto for your laundry detergent with its optical brightener. The optical brightener is a xenoestrogen with two phenyl rings. The optical brightener is in the laundry detergent, goes into your clothes, and is NOT fully washed from your clothes. You wear the clothes. The optical brightener goes into your body, depresses your thyroid hormone sensitivity, you become hypothyroid, and your hair begins to thin.

If you buy any product from us, you will receive a list of chemicals and herbs to avoid that appear to be hormone disruptive. You will also obtain a sheet of recommended products that seem to be free of hormone disruptive herbs and chemicals. This avoidance sheet and recommended products list has been constantly modified since 1999 and used in over 25,000 patients.

Iodine Deficiency and Bromine Toxicity Leads to Thinning Hair

Brownstein, M.D. found that out of 500 patients over 90% of them had an iodine deficiency. Brownstein M.D. has a Midwest practice. He gave 50 mg of iodine orally. Then, he collected a 24-hour urine. If he got back 80% of the iodine in the urine, then the patient was considered to be iodine sufficient. He found that over 90% of the 500 patients were deficient in iodine. The Midwest have a reputation for patients having goiters before theleafyseaweedr.jpg turn-of-the-century. Putting iodine in salt is considered a major coup in the field of Public Health to reduce goiters. However, the amount of iodine in iodized salt is just enough to stave off goiters, and is not enough iodine for optimal functioning of the human body.
The glaciers in the Midwest scooped out the Great Lakes and with it, the soil that contained iodine. Iodine was deposited elsewhere the United States because ancient seas had iodine and deposited the iodine in the soil. However, in the Midwest, there is no iodine in the soil. When the grass grows on the soil, there is no iodine in the grass. When the beef eats the grass, there is no iodine in the beef. Thus, all the food that comes the Midwest is likely iodine deficient. And when you have an iodine deficiency goiters are produced. Thus, iodine deficiency in the Midwest is common place and with it hypothyroid and thinning hair.

As you recall, T3 and T4 have three iodine atoms and four iodine atoms, respectively in the molecule. Iodine is essential for the proper working of T3 and T4. The problem is that bromine in the same column of the periodic table and can substitute for iodine. Instead of iodine in the T3 and T4 molecule, it may be possible that bromine may be there instead. The thyroid molecule is then rendered impotent by the bromine atom. It may be also that the chemical blood test cannot differentiate between a blood bromine poisoned thyroid hormone and a proper iodine filled thyroid hormone. Bromine is commonly found as brominated vegetable oil in sodas and sports drinks. Brominated vegetable oil is used to dissolve citrus oils into water by changing the density of the water, and allowing the citrus oils to mix into the water. The problem is that bromine forces out iodine and poisons the thyroid system. The result is that people are hypothyroid from bromine toxicity. Fluoride in the same periodic table may also be a problem. However, bromine is closer in size to iodine than fluoride. So, bromine is more of a problem. Bromine is also found in flour. Bromine can be found in flour in the grocery store, but is not listed on the package. If an additive in the product is commonplace and used broadly in the product then it does not have to be listed as ingredients on the package. The only way to find out if your flour has bromine in it is to call the company and ask. Commercial bakery products also use the same flour with bromine in it, and bromine since it is widespread and commonly used in all commercial bakery flour, bromine does not have to be listed. Bromine is also found in asthma inhalers, and brominated swimming pools and hot tubs.

When iodine is taken, iodine displaces bromine and bromine comes out through the urine. However, bromine is toxic. Bromine is used to sterilize soil for strawberries to prevent fungus in the roots. Therefore, when iodine is taken bromine comes out of the body and numerous side effects from the bromine toxicity can be seen. I have seen acne from bromine coming out and taking iodine. My wife and I have experienced vivid dreams. The vivid dreams disappeared after two weeks of taking iodine and drinking lots of water. My wife experienced heart palpitations from taking iodine and the bromine detox that followed. However, these heart palpitations stopped, after two weeks of taking iodine. Take iodine and drink lots of water. You may experience's increased salivation or decreased salivation. You may experience increased mucus production. In extreme cases you may experience a sore thyroid, if there is so much bromine that the bromine being released actually bursts your thyroid cells. The full list of the side effects from bromine toxicity from taking iodine are on our purple sheet. The purple sheet comes with any products when you buy from us. The most important thing to remember about taking iodine is that the side effects are from bromine toxicity and not iodine. Please blame bromine toxicity. Do not blame iodine. Your body needs iodine.

Your body does not need bromine. Again, the average Japanese in Japan eats 12.5 mg of iodine per day. Again, a common cause for feeling cold is an iodine deficiency with usually a bromine toxicity. Taking a thyroid pill usually will not solve the problem of an iodine deficiency. I myself am a medical doctor and was cold and had a low temperature. I asked 12 different medical doctors for 15 years to solve this problem. They gave me armour thyroid. However, the armour thyroid did not help. My patients had told me to use iodine for seven years. However, I did not believe them. However, after seven years, I tried some iodine. Within a month and a half of taking iodine. My body temperature raised 1°F and I felt better. Just check out the positive reviews on Amazon.com about Iodoral. In the future, I will try to be more humble, and listen to my patients.

Chemicals Can Block Thyroid Hormone at the Receptor Level

There are many chemicals that are known to cause hormone disruption of the thyroid hormone and receptor. The WHO 2014 regional Europe Identification of risks from exposure to ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CHEMICALS at the country level concluded the following: It is considered to be well glover.jpgestablished that baby brain development relies on normal thyroid levels. La Frachi showed that small changes in thyroid hormone during pregnancy correlated with cognitive problems. [14]

Experiments in animals have demonstrated that many chemicals can cause a reduction in levels of thyroid levels. [15] Brucker-Davis reviewed the literature on pesticides DDT, amitrole, thiocarbamates, ethylenethiourea, polyhalogenated hydrocarbons, phenol derivatives, and phthalates. Wildlife in polluted areas showed goiters and thyroid imbalances. Brucker-Davis notes that experimental evidence in rodents, fish, and primates confirms the potential for thyroid disruption. Brucker-Davis thinks that background exposure to these chemicals does not seem to affect adult humans, but exposure to higher levels by accident or occupation may produce mild thyroid changes. She notes that transgenerational effects due to exposure to these chemicals in the womb is now being considered by the science community. There are several studies that show brain damage in children with high levels of PCBs, and dioxins. It is still unclear whether or not these are thyroid effects or direct neurotoxicity effects.[16]

A hormone is a chemical messenger. A hormone has two functions. First, the hormone fits into the hormone receptor. Second, after the hormone fits into the receptor, the hormone tells the receptor what to do. If there is a molecule that looks similar to the hormone, it will fit into the receptor. However, it may say to “do nothing” to the receptor. In this case, the similar molecule is “blocking” the receptor from the real thyroid hormone T4 or T3. The similar molecule can also tell the receptor to do strange things.

According to World Health Organization 2012, dioxin like molecules and some flame retardants are structurally similar to T3 and T4. These similar molecules can compete for the thyroid receptor TH and thus, will block the thyroid receptor. Essentially, they may go into the thyroid receptor, TH, bind to the receptor, prevent the real thyroid molecule from binding to the receptor, and tell the receptor to "do nothing." Essentially, these molecules may be causing hypothyroidism. However, these fake thyroid hormone mimickers will not show up on the thyroid test.

According to World Health Organization 2013, there is concrete evidence for PCBs, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, bisphenol A, and perfluorinated chemicals have a thyroid disrupting effect. [17-22]

Toxic Chemicals May Cause Hair to Fall Out

Toxic chemicals may act directly on the hair follicle and cause the hair to fall out. Chemotherapy makes hair fall out because the hair follicle is made of rapidly reproducing cells, and chemotherapy kills all rapidly reproducing cells. Similarly there are other toxic chemicals in the home that could varnishfloorr.jpgaffect rapidly reproducing cells. For instance, my grandmother went to a beauty salon and the use of toxic haircare products on her scalp caused all her hair to fall out. Fortunately, the hair, later, grew back. This amply demonstrated that some of the haircare products used by beauty salons can be toxic to the hair follicle. Different individuals may have different thresholds for toxicity depending upon their health and ability to detox the chemicals. An older person may have less margin of safety to be able to detox the toxic chemicals. Also, women that have fear, stress and anxiety have an impaired ability to excrete chemicals, and a toxic chemical will affect them more than a person that does not have fear, stress, anxiety. The hallmark of someone who has fear, stress, anxiety is a hypersensitivity to smell, and impaired Romberg test, they are more sensitive to drugs than their peers, allergies, and seasickness in a boat in the ocean. These women are more sensitive to drugs than their peers. They may drink a cup of coffee and the coffee keeps them up all night. What this indicates is that their body has difficulty excreting caffeine. Again, if they are able to get rid of the fear, stress and anxiety their ability to drink coffee, and sleep at night is improved. Likewise, if they are able to get rid of the fear, stress and anxiety their ability to get rid of toxic chemicals is improved and less hair will fall out.

This is what happened to me. We bought a house in the master bedroom had a very smelly paint and it. In addition, the wooden floor was lacquered with a water soluble smelly varnish as well. I took a month to sand the entire floor, buy an expensive safe varnish, and varnish the floor. During this time, my hair fell out and thinned. I found much hair on my pillow. After month, my hair was noticeably thinner. The product manufacturer of this expensive water soluble varnish told me that in several months, the varnish would stop smelling. However, after several years, the varnish never stopped smelling. After a large rain, and increased humidity, the varnish would absorb the moisture, and then would start smelling again. If I went into the master bedroom, my hair would start to fall out again. This was a painful example of a toxic chemical exposure causing my hair to fall out. Eventually, I sealed the bad master bedroom, and I covered the floor with foil and tile.

It seems that certain varnishes and chemicals found in the house can make your hair fall out because there are toxic, and your particular body constitution may not be able to detoxify from these chemicals. The chemicals can also vary by batch especially in rugs. One rug of the same brand and type may be fine, and a different rug of the same brand and type may not be fine. I find that glazed tile to be the safest bet to cover the floor.

If your hair loss, varies with the season, then you should consider some environmental toxin that varies with the seasons causing your hair to fall out. For instance, if you have hair falling out during the winter and your house is sealed, then you may consider that your gas-fired furnace is creating a toxic chemical. The toxic byproducts from the furnace may cause your hair fall out. If you hair is falling out during the summer and spring time, then you may consider some herbicide or pesticide being sprayed outside your home that's making your hair fall out. In general, pesticides, herbicides, varnishes, petroleum products, gas combustion products, i.e. gas furnace, gas fireplace, auto exhaust tend to make your hair fall out.

Malnutrition Causing Your Hair to Fall Out

Malnutrition can cause your hair to fall out. This seems strange to discuss malnutrition in any first world country such as Australia, United States, and Europe. However, it seems that I have seen my share of malnutrition causing hair to thin and fall out. I have seen people on long-term Atkins diets vegetarianr.jpgcomplain of falling out, hair. Also, it is common to see women with malnutrition that have malabsorption problems in the gut. The main question to ask is are there any meals that make you bloat and have a lot of gas. If the answer is yes, then consider that you may be allergic to something that your eating. When you eat the allergic food, you are creating a rash on the insides of your intestines. This rash on inside of the intestine causes a malabsorption. Sometimes you may have parasites or even bad bacteria in the gut, which prevents the absorption of important nutrients that keep your hair growing. Vegetarians seem to be very vulnerable to malabsorption because vegetarians are eating less nutrient rich foods. Therefore, whenever a person says that they are vegetarian, red flags go up and I look for some kind of malabsorption problem which leads to some kind of physical ailment. Some of my patients believed that eating molasses helped to reverse some of their malnutrition. However, I am not an expert in nutrition to reverse hair loss.

Many times the malabsorption is preceded by some major psychological trauma. For instance, the prototypical patients had a divorce. After each of the divorce, the patient developed allergies and malabsorption. The malabsorption caused a deficiency in sulfur. Sulfur is used in tendons and ligaments. The patient developed weak tendons and ligaments in their backs and shoulders. For instance, the patient was walking down the stairs and ripped his tendons in his back because he missed the step on the last step.  The patient developed an aneurysm because of sulfur deficiencies. An aneurysm is a simply a bulge in the artery. If the aneurysm gets too large, it will burst and can cause sudden death.

For these tendon issues. I simply give MSM or methyl sulfonyl methane 1 to 10 g per day. Initially, I give one gram of methyl sulfonyl methane per day and slowly work my way up to 10 g per day. Vitamin C 1 to 3 g per day is also given. In addition, chromium nicotinate 200 to 400 µg per day is also given. Chromium is essential for tendon repair and people in North and South America are deficient in chromium, because there no chromium deposits in North and South America. There is no chromium in the grass. There is no chromium in the beef that eats the grass. When you eat the beef, there is no chromium in the beef. After the tendons are fixed in about 3 to 6 months, then you must maintain at 3 g of MSM per day until you have fixed the malabsorption in the intestine. Otherwise, two years hence, the patient will rip there tends again because of the sulfur deficiency.

The branch of medicine that routinely fixes intestinal malabsorption is called functional medicine. They believe that they must remove this fear, stress and anxiety. They must eliminate the bad bacteria or parasites in the gut. They believe that they must replace the bad bacteria in the gut with normal flora. Then, also, you must fix the leaky gut. You may web search functional medicine and find a practitioner near your location.

Male Pattern Hair Loss Due to Anovulatory Cycles after the Age of 35

Progesterone levels fall, when the ovarian follicle fails. The ovarian follicle will fail for most cycles but not all cycles after the age of 35. The ovarian follicle also fail if the woman is an extreme athlete in her younger age. After the age of 35, the follicle comes up on the ovary and then goes back down. No egg is popped out of the follicle. Usually, before the age of 35, after the egg pops out of the follicle, the used follicle becomes the corpus luteum, and the corpus luteum produces progesterone. But after the age of 35, for most cycles but not all cycles, no corpus luteum is produced and no progesterone is produced. The body responds to this corpus luteum failure by producing androstedione in the adrenal cortex. Androstendione is an alternative precursor for other adrenal cortical hormones such as testosterone, estrone, estradiol, and estriol. Androstendione expresses androgenic traits such as male pattern hair loss. Taking progesterone transdermally will cause the androstedione levels to fall, and normal hair growth to continue. Usually, this process takes 4 to 6 months. If the woman takes too much of the adrenal hormone DHEA, DHEA will be converted into androstedione which will cause hair loss.

Chemicals can also prevent androstedione from being converted to estradiol, estriol, and estrone. The only other place that androstedione can go at this point is to be converted into testosterone. This extra testosterone in a woman creates male pattern baldness.[23,24]

Stopping Hair Loss in Six Easy Steps

1. Eliminate xenoestrogens. Xenoestrogens cause depressed thyroid hormone sensitivity. Buy any product from us and get a list of safe products to use. You will also get a list of chemicals and herbs to avoid that are xenoestrogens.

2. Take iodine. Buy any product from us and get a protocol on how to take iodine. Watch out for bromine detoxification whenever you take iodine.

3. Any furniture with foam usually contains a fire retardant. Fire retardant is a thyroid blocker. As of 2015, there will be more furniture that comes fire retardant free due to changes in the law.

4. Be aware of toxic chemicals such as a varnishes, oil based paints, petroleum products, gas-fired heating, pesticides and herbicides that may poison that haircut follicle and cause your hair to fall out. Zero VOC latex paint is now available at Lowes. Toxic chemicals poison the hair follicle directly to cause the hair to fall out.

5. Severe psychological stress can affect intestinal absorption. Parasites and bad bacteria can move in to the gut. The gut can also be leaky. Fear, stress, and anxiety can cause allergies which also affect intestinal absorption. The vegetarians are especially vulnerable to malabsorption. Malabsorption in the gut can prevent good nutrition to getting to the hair follicle. The branch of medicine that can correct this is called Functional Medicine.

6. If you are having anovulatory cycles after the age of 35 or are a vigorous athlete, you are many not be producing progesterone. The adrenal cortex will compensate by producing androstendione. Androstendione messages the body to become male. Androstendione will cause male pattern baldness. Taking transdermal progesterone will reduce androstendione.

 

 

Notes:

1. John Lee, M.D., What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause, Time Warner book group, New York, New York, 2004, pages 367 -368.

2. John Lee, M.D. and Jesse Hanley, M.D., Virginia Hopkins, What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Pre-menopause, Warner books, New York, New York, 1999, pages 191-192.

3. Schlumpf M, Schmid P, Durrer S, Conscience M, Maerkel K, Henseler M, et al. 2004. Endocrine activity and developmental toxicity of cosmetic UV filters--an update. Toxicology 205(1-2): 113-122.

4. Downs CA, Kramarsky-Winter E, Segal R, Fauth J, Knutson S, Bronstein O, Ciner FR, Jeger R, Lichtenfeld Y, Woodley CM, Pennington P,Cadenas K, Kushmaro A, Loya Y
Toxicopathological Effects of the Sunscreen UV Filter, Oxybenzone (Benzophenone-3), on Coral Planulae and Cultured Primary Cells and Its Environmental Contamination in Hawaii and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol,2015 Oct 20

5. Delclos KB, Bucci TJ, et al. 2001. Effects of dietary genistein exposure during development on male and female CD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. Reproductive Toxicology 15(6): 647-63.

6.Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E, Clark G, and Newbold RR. 2002a. Assessing estrogenic activity of phytochemicals using transcriptional activation and immature mouse uterotrophic responses. Journal of Chromatography. B Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences 777(1-2):179-189.

7. Jefferson WN, Couse JF, Padilla-Banks E, Korach KS, and Newbold RR. 2002b. Neonatal exposure to genistein induces estrogen receptor (ER) alpha expression and multioocyte follicles in the maturing mouse ovary: Evidence for ERbeta-mediated and nonestrogenic actions. Biology of Reproduction 67(4):1285-1296.

8. Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E, and Newbold R. 2005. Adverse effects on female development and reproduction in CD-1 mice following neonatal exposure to the phytoestrogen genistein at environmentally relevant doses. Biology of Reproduction 73(4):798-806.

9. Jefferson WN, Newbold R, Padilla-Banks E, and Pepling M. 2006. Neonatal Genistein Treatment Alters Ovarian Differentiation in the Mouse: Inhibition of Oocyte Nest Breakdown and Increased Oocyte Survival. Biology of Reproduction 74(1):161-168.

10. Kouki T, Kishitake M, et al. 2003. Effects of neonatal treatment with phytoestrogens, genistein and daidzein, on sex difference in female rat brain function: Estrous cycle and lordosis. Hormones and Behavior 44(2):140-145.

11. Nagao T, Yoshimura S, et al. 2001. Reproductive effects in male and female rats of neonatal exposure to genistein. Reproductive Toxicology 15(4):399-411.

12. Nikaido Y, Yoshizawa K, et al. 2004. Effects of maternal xenoestrogen exposure on development of the reproductive tract and mammary gland in female CD-1 mouse offspring. Reproductive Toxicology 18(6):803-811.

13. Whitten PL, Lewis C, et al. 1993. A phytoestrogen diet induces the premature anovulatory syndrome in lactationally exposed female rats. Biology of Reproduction 49(5): 1117-1121.

14. La Franchi, Newborn screening strategies for congenital hypothyroidism: an update. Journal of inherited Metabolic Disease, 2010, 33, Suppl 2:S225-233.

15. Howdeshell, A Model of the Development of the Brain as a Construct of the Thyroid System, 2002, Evironmental Health Perspectives, 2002, 110,Suppl 3:S337-348.

16. Brucker-Davis F, Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function, Thyroid,1998, 8(9):827-856.

17. Abdelouhab, Gender Differences in the effects of organochlorides, mercury, and lead on thyroid hormone levels in lakeside communities of Quebec, Canada, 2008, Environmental Research, 107(3):380-392.

18. Hagmar L., Plasma levels of persistent organohalogens and hormone levels in adult mail humans, Archives of Environmental Health, 2001a, 56(2):138-143.

19. Hagmar L., Plasma levels of persistent organohalogens and hormone levels in relation to thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in women, International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 2001b, 74(3):184-188.

20. Persky V, The effects of PCB exposure and fish consumption on endogenous hormones, Environmental Health Persspectives, 2001, 109(12):1275-1283.

21. Schell LM, Relationship of thyroid hormone levels to levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, lead, p,p’-DDE, and other toxicants in Akwesasne Mohawk youth. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(6):806-813.

22. Turyk, Anderson, Persky, Relationships of thyroid hormones with polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, furans, and DDE in adults, Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115(8):1197-1203.

23. John Lee M.D., Jesse Hanley M.D., and Virginia Hopkins, What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause, Warner books, Inc. 1999, New York, New York, pages 191-192.

24. John Lee, M.D. with Virginia Hopkins, What Your Doctor May Not You About Pre-menopause, Time Warner book group, 1996, New York, New York, pages 367-368.