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Progesterone Dose

Dose of Natural Progesterone

The dose of topical natural progesterone is usually 20-60 mg/day depending on the type of disease being treated. Again, the oral dose of progesterone needs to be 10 times as much because the liver 1st pass inactivates the progesterone by 90%. So, a 200 mg oral dose of progesterone is equivalent to a 20 mg topical progesterone dose. Natural Progesterone taken sublingually has an effective dose of something between oral and topical effective dose. Even though the Natural Progesterone is absorbed under the tongue, it will depend on how long you hold it there. Taken vaginally or rectally, the progesterone is in part drained by the portal vein and goes straight to the liver to be first pass 90% inactivated. You may read more about using progesterone in various routes of administration here.

In general, the more severe the disease, the more natural progesterone is needed to treat it. In general, progesterone is taken between the days of 14 and 26 where day 1 is the first day of the period. Natural Progesterone is used to accentuate the woman’s own progesterone production during the cycle. Natural Progesterone can be used to balance out weak xenoestrogens absorbed from your environment.

Contents

 

1. Dose of Natural Progesterone

2. PMS, Premenstrual Syndrome

3. Natural Progesterone Taken Before Ovulation Stops Ovulation - So Treat Ovarian Cysts

4. Natural Progesterone May be Used to Mimic Pregnancy so Treat Endometriosis and Adenomyosis

5. Fibrocystic Breast Disease Treatment Using Natural Progesterone

6. Microcalcifications in the Breast

7. Migraine Headaches Treated with Natural Progesterone

8. Cervical Dysplasia Treated with Natural Progesterone

9. Acne, Cyclical Treated with Natural Progesterone

10. Menorrhagia Treated with Natural Progesterone

11. Hypothyroid - Thinning Hair with Fat on the Belly and Hips that Resists Diet and Excerise

12. Restless Leg Syndrome Natural Progesterone Dose

13. Reynaud's Syndrome Treated with Natural Progesterone

14. Menstrual Cramping Natural Progesterone Dose

15. Osteoporosis Countered by Natural Progesterone

16. Uterine Fibroids and Natural Progesterone Dose

17. Menopause Natural Progesterone Dose

18. Vaginal Dryness Dose of Natural Progesterone

19. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Treated with Natural Progesterone

20. Early Miscarriage and Early Preterm Delivery Treated with Natural Progesterone

21. Post Partum Depression Treated with Natural Progesterone

22. The Most Important Element - Avoiding Xenoestrogens

23. Summary for Dosing with Natural Progesterone

PMS, Premenstrual Syndrome

Women with PMS typically take anywhere from 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 14 to 26. Irritability, bloating, breast tenderness, cyclical weight gain and hair loss all get better with Natural Progesterone, if and only if xenoestrogens are removed from the patient’s environment for 1-3 months. It takes 1-3 months for xenoestrogens to wash out of the body since they are fat soluble. If you lose weight, the fat lost will release xenostrogens. Buy any of our products and get an extensive list of xenoestrogens and recommended products. I looked through 500 shampoos and only found 3 that were alright.

Natural Progesterone Taken Before Ovulation Stops Ovulation - So Treat Ovarian Cysts

Natural Progesterone taken before ovulation from days 6-26 at 60mg/day topically can suppress ovulation. Natural Progesterone will signal the pinkballonsr.jpgovaries to stop ovaries from ovulating. If you take Natural Progesterone, the ovaries look at the progesterone level and “think” that you are pregnant and will not ovulate. Ovarian cysts are follicles that keep on growing and become a cyst. If you take Natural Progestrone before you ovulate, Natural Progesterone will suppress the follicles from growing, and the ovarian cysts will not form. John Lee, MD used 60 mg/day of topical progesterone to suppress ovarian cysts. Ovarian cysts likely form from follicles because of hormone disruptors and xenoestrogens. Read more about treating ovarian cysts here.

Follicles on the ovary produce estradiol. Natural Progesterone taken before ovulation tells the follicles NOT to form. Natural Progesterone is nature’s signal to the ovary if present before you ovulate that you are pregnant. If no follicle is produced, then no estradiol is produced by the follicle. If no estradiol is produced by the follicle then, there is less estradiol to stimulate adenomyosis or endometriosis. Natural Progesterone can be used to mimic and create a fake pregnancy to stop ovulation. Mainstream physicians know that pregnancy stops or slows endometriosis and adenomyosis. Natural Progesterone may be taken from days 6-26 days at 60mg/day topically to suppress ovulation and fake pregnancy to the body. Thus, Natural Progesterone may be taken from days 6-26, whenever you do NOT have a period, is used to treat endometriosis and adenomyosis. Natural Progesterone when taken from days 6-26 mimics a pregnancy. Day 1 is the first day of your period.

PCOS or Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome patients may or may not also benefit from Natural Progesterone administration. Taking iodine is also very important. I usually give 60 mg/day from days 6-26. Avoiding simple carbohydrates and sugar in processed food is extremely important according to John Lee, MD.

If you do not want to conceive immediately, you can take progesterone from days 6-26 for any disease. Suppressing ovulation will save eggs for the future. This is why women that conceive and deliver many times (say 9 times) are fertile in their older age. While they are pregnant, these women are not ovulating, not cycling, and not having menstrual periods, they are saving their eggs for the future. If you don’t want to conceive immediately, then you may take Natural Progesterone anytime you do not have a period.

Natural Progesterone May be Used to Mimic Pregnancy so Treat Endometriosis and Adenomyosis

Endometriosis is the endometrium or uterus lining that some how ends up on the intestine. Adenomyosis is the uterus lining that grows into the muscle of the uterus. Adenomyosis is considered to be the kissing cousin of Endometriosis. Again, mainstream physicians believe that both Adenomyosis and Endometriosis can be temporarily stopped by getting pregnant. So pregnancy is encouraged by mainstream physicians as a treatment for endometriosis and adenomyosis. During pregnancy high levels of Natural Progesterone and Natural Estriol are present. Natural Estriol is a “weak” estrogen that goes into the estrogen receptor and blocks all the other “strong” estrogens. Also Natural Progesterone can balance out the estrogens (if and only if you are NOT taking one strong xenoestrogen). Alternative medicine practitioners believe that you can create a pseudo or “fake” pregnancy by giving Natural Progesterone alone. I recommend 60 mg/day of topical Natural Progesterone from days 6-26 or whenever the woman is not bleeding. In some cases, I have tried to gives Natural Estriol to several endometriosis patients that refuse to quit xenoestrogens. I have had some success using Natural Estriol. The dose for topical Natural Estriol is 0.5 mg/every other day.

Iodine is important to take for endometriosis and adenomyosis. Iodine helps convert strong estradiol to weaker estriol according to Johnathon Wright, MD of the Tahoma Washington Clinic. I also recommend Nattokinase to dissolve the adhesions and scar tissue in the abdomen associated with endometriosis. However, Nattokinase should not be used with adenomyosis. Nattokinase breaks down the fibrin in the blood clots and may cause increased bleeding.

Fibrocystic Breast Disease Treatment Using Natural Progesterone

Fibrocystic breast disease can be treated from 12-26 days with 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone. Eliminate xenoestrogens. Take iodine watching out for Bromine Toxicity. Buy any product from us and get a list of chemicals and herbs to avoid because they are xenoestrogens. If you do not eliminate xenoestrogens, then the Natural Progesterone will not work.

Microcalcifications in the Breast

Many times the breast has micro calcifications. These micro calcifications are due to a magnesium deficiency caused by xenostrogens. Simply take asmicrocalcifications.jpg much easily absorbable magnesium in the form of chelated magnesium. If you get diarrhea, cut back on the magnesium. Do NOT take Magnesium Oxide as this form of magnesium is NOT easily absorbable. Eliminate xenoestrogens. Take Natural Progesterone 20-40 mg/day from days 14-26. High levels of Magnesium will cause the micro calcifications to dissolve assuming that you eliminate xenoestrogens.

Migraine Headaches Treated with Natural Progesterone

Migraine Headaches that vary with the menstrual cycle can be treated from days 16-26 with 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone. Many times the Migraine Headache will slowly increase up to right before the period and sometimes more rarely continue through the period. Women have found that they can slowly increase the Natural Progesterone right up to the headache. Some women rub the Natural Progesterone on the temples, neck, or under the tongue when they feel the migraine coming on or the characteristic aura that precedes the migraine. You may apply Natural Progesterone every three to four hours. If you apply 60 mg/day or more of Natural Progesterone, the Natural Progesterone may stop the period. It is alright to stop the period every once in a while. However, you would like to allow the period to occur every once in a while so as not allow the lining of the uterus to build up.

Cervical Dysplasia Treated with Natural Progesterone

Cervical Dysplasia may also be treated with 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone on days 12-26. Taking B vitamins is required. You need to take at least 400 mcg/day of folic acid, 50 mg/day of B6, and 1000 mcg/day of B12 along with 10,000 IU of Vitamin A. Make sure NOT to take more than 200 mg/day of B6 as this may rarely lead to a permanent neuropathy. Take the B Vitamins in the morning, as taking them at night will lead to vivid dreams.

Acne, Cyclical Treated with Natural Progesterone

Acne that varies with the cycle certainly has a hormonal component. Again, the acne that varies with the cycle is caused by xenoestrogens and hormone disruptors causing increased testosterone. Taking Natural Progesterone 20-40 mg/day from days 14-26 can help. The main thing though is to avoid xenoestrogens and other hormone disruptors. Buy any product from us and get a list of xenoestrogens and recommended safe product list. I looked through 500 shampoos and could only find 3 that were safe.

Menorrhagia Treated with Natural Progesterone

Menorrhagia or excessive or constant vaginal bleeding is easily remedied by avoiding xenoestrogens and taking Natural Progesterone. You may take 20-60 mg/day of Natural Progesterone when you are not having a period. If the period is occurring throughout the majority of the month you may even take Natural Progesterone when you are not bleeding much. Again, the effect of Natural Progesterone is to stop the shedding of the lining of the uterus. This is why Natural Progesterone is used to prevent miscarriage.

Hypothyroid - Thinning Hair with Fat on the Belly and Hips that Resists Diet and Excerise

Most hypothyroid symptoms of thinning hair and fat on the belly and hips with normal thyroid hormone blood test levels (or low normal thyroid fatbellyr.jpghormone blood test levels) is caused by xenoestrogens acting in synergy with your own estradiol. Xenoestrogens plus your own estradiol lowers the thyroid hormone sensitivity so that even if you have normal thyroid hormone blood test levels, you will still be hypothyroid. Your are hypothyroid because you are less sensitive to your own thyroid hormone. Take 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 12-26.

Take iodine being careful to avoid bromine toxicity. Women are typically poisoned with bromine. Bromine has poisoned the thyroid hormone replacing the iodine in the thyroid hormone with bromine. Replacing the iodine with bromine results in a non functioning thyroid hormone. Bromine can be found in flour, sodas, sports drinks, brominated swimming pools, and asthma inhalers. Read about treating hypothyroid. Typically, if you have avoided xenoestrogens, this takes 4-6 months.

Restless Leg Syndrome Natural Progesterone Dose

Restless Leg Syndrome may also be treated with 20-40 mg/day from days 14-26. It is most important to treat the magnesium deficiency with 200-600 mg/day of a good chelated magnesium. I prefer magnesium glycinate. “Jigsaw” Magnesium has an excellent absorption properties. A magnesium deficiency leads to tensed up muscles. Taking a good Vitamin B-100 in the morning to avoid vivid dreams at night. The Vitamin B deficiency caused by xenoestrogens working in synergy with your own estradiol causes the creeping crawling feeling or burning sensation (neuropathy).

Reynaud's Syndrome Treated with Natural Progesterone

Many cases of primary Raynaud’s Syndrome maybe misdiagnosed and simply be a severe magnesium deficiency. The severe magnesium deficiency causes arteries to constrict and severely limit blood flow to the hands and feet especially when it is cold. This results in cold hands and feet and even turns the hands and feet blue in some instances. Take as much easily absorbable magnesium as you can before getting diarrhea. Do NOT take Magnesium Oxide as Magnesium Oxide is poorly absorbed. Avoid xenoestrogens. Take 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 14-26.

Menstrual Cramping Natural Progesterone Dose

cramp.jpgMenstrual cramping is again due to xenoestrogens that cause a magnesium deficiency. The magnesium deficiency causes muscle cramping all over the body including the uterus. The uterus is a muscle. Take an easily absorbable magnesium typically a chelated magnesium until you almost get diarrhea. Do NOT take Magnesium Oxide as the absorption is poor. Take 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 14-26. Since chocolate is high in magnesium, a magnesium craving just before the period is a sure sign of a magnesium deficiency. Ironically, chocolate is a xenoestrogen and will make the magnesium deficiency worse.

Osteoporosis Fought by Natural Progesterone

For Osteoporosis, you may take Natural Progesterone from days 16-26 at 20-60 mg/day. You must alkalinize the body for this to work. I suggest getting a personal consultation from Glenn at ihsite.com. If you do NOT alkalinize the body and constantly monitor it, Natural Progesterone will NOT work. I also recommend that you read “What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause” by John Lee, MD on the subject of osteoporosis.

Uterine Fibroids and Natural Progesterone Dose

For Uterine Fibroids above the size of a grapefruit, do NOT take Natural Progesterone. John Lee, MD has found that taking Natural Progesterone for fibroids above the size of a grapefruit actually increases the size of the fibroid. Fibroids seem to be linked to emotional distress as well. For fibroids below the size of a grapefruit you may take Natural Progesterone. You may take 20-60 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 8-26. Indole-3-Carbinol at 200-600 mg/day lowers your own estradiol. Nattokinase can also directly break down the fibrin in the fibroid. DIM doesn’t seem to work very well for fibroids.

Menopause Natural Progesterone Dose

For Hot Flashes and Night Sweats of Menopause you may use the dose of 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone from days 6-26. The idea is to use the Natural Progesterone for 3 weeks out of 4 weeks. Using Natural Progesterone continually can Down Regulate the Natural Progesterone receptors to make you less sensitive to Natural Progesterone. So John Lee, MD recommends taking a one week holiday from Natural Progesterone a month. The other strategy is to take Natural Progesterone continually and slowly taper it off to zero over a period of 6 months to a year. It is not the absolute value of progesterone or estradiol that you have. It is the sharp drop in estradiol that is causing the hot flashes and night sweats. Thus, it is important to slowly taper the amount of Natural Progesterone. Psychological stress also seems to exacerbate hot flashes and night sweats. I had one patient that totally got rid of her menopausal symptoms by taking a 2 week vacation on Maui. Most of the time, I use Natural Progesterone alone to treat Hot Flashes and Night Sweats, Natural Estriol is NOT needed. However, I sometimes Natural Estriol is needed to be taken with Natural Progesterone.

Vaginal Dryness Dose of Natural Progesterone

Vaginal dryness may be treated with 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone 3 weeks out of 4. Natural Progesterone increases vaginal lubrication in the absence of xenoestrogens. Many times after menopause the woman will also be affected by vaginal atrophy with decreased vagina size and the accompanying difficulty of penetration. Natural Estriol taken 3 weeks out of 4 at a dose of 0.5 mg/day may be taken to counter vaginal atrophy. Natural Estriol levels are usually near zero normally. Natural Estriol goes up 100 times during pregnancy during the third trimester. Natural Estriol toughens up the skin in the birth canal for the baby to pass through. Natural Estriol can be used to thicken up skin on any part of the body. Sometimes chronic use of Natural Progesterone can thin the skin. Natural Estriol will thicken the skin. Again, Natural Estriol in significant amounts appears only during the third trimester of pregnancy. Women pregnant for 9 times and deliver have smaller risks of breast cancer and endometrial cancer. Sex Drive or libido goes sky high during the third trimester when Natural Progesterone levels and Natural Estriol levels are high. Thus, Natural Estriol is considered to be a “safe” estrogen to take.

Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy Treated with Natural Progesterone

Natural Progesterone may be used to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy. The prostate is embryologically analogous to the uterus. We know what causes uterine cancer, estrogen. Thus, estrogen causes benign prostatic hypertrophy as well. Formby, PhD showed that adding estrogen to breast cancer cells in the test tube caused them to grow activating Bcl-2 oncogene (cancer-causing gene). Progesterone activated the cancer-protective gene, p53. Progesterone at levels in the body approaching that of concentrations found in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy caused breast cancer cell death, apoptosis. After 72 hours, natural progesterone caused apoptosis in 48% of the breast cancer cells, and an additional 40% of the breast cancer cells in the test tube demonstrated “leaky” membranes. [1,2] You may take 10 mg/day of Natural Progesterone for benign prostatic hypertrophy three weeks out of four weeks. It is important to take a week vacation from Natural Progesterone to avoid down regulation of the progesterone receptor. Constant Natural Progesterone intake will cause you to become less sensitive to Natural Progesterone.

Early Miscarriage and Early Preterm Delivery Treated with Natural Progesterone

Natural Progesterone may or may not be used to help miscarriage, if and only if, the miscarriage occurs between the weeks of gestation from 5-8 weeks. If the miscarriage occurs between 5-8 weeks of gestation, the cause of the miscarriage is a Natural Progesterone deficiency until proven otherwise, OR it may be that you are taking an herb or chemical that blocks Natural Progesterone at the receptor level. Some herbs are traditionally used by folk medicine practitioners to create miscarriage. Many of these herbs are now commonly used in cosmetics or toiletries. For instance, (I don’t agree with this morally) in certain cultures, it is widely known, if you drink enough aloe during the first trimester, this will create a miscarriage. Aloe can create a miscarriage during the 1st trimester, if taken in sufficient amounts.[3] Thus, I would not use any shampoo or lotion or cosmetic with aloe if you are pregnant or want to become pregnant. The full list of herbs used to create miscarriage can be found in our literature if you buy any of our products.

I am not against herbs. Certainly, if you have a sunburn or an immune deficiency or regulation problem, you can take aloe. Aloe would be indicated. However, if you are trying to get pregnant or are pregnant taking aloe or any herb that causes miscarriage would be not too smart. Similarly, if you are taking progesterone and want the progesterone to work, taking an herb that blocks progesterone at the receptor level is not too smart either.

To help miscarriage, I usually use 60 mg/day of Natural Progesterone divided into two doses. You may use 30 mg in the morning and 30 mg at night. You may take Natural Progesterone right after conception and then slowly taper off the Natural Progesterone starting at week 16. The reason why it is important to taper off the Natural Progesterone slowly is that if you stop the Natural Progesterone suddenly, then the dropping Natural Progesterone levels will signal to the body to create a miscarriage. Thus, it is critical that you do NOT forget to take Natural Progesterone even one day. If you forget to take Natural Progesterone even one day, this can trigger a miscarriage.

Natural Progesterone is the hormone of pregnancy. Natural Progesterone signals the body to maintain the pregnancy. Natural Progesterone is produced during the pregnancy at first by the corpus luteum on the ovary at 20-40 mg/day. The Natural Progesterone levels keep ramping up so that the placenta produces 400 mg/day during one day of third trimester pregnancy. Initially, during the first trimester production of Natural Progesterone is primarily made by the corpus luteum on the ovary. During the second and third trimesters, Natural Progesterone production is dominated by the placenta. For most women, they only need Natural Progesterone during the first trimester because the placenta produces so much Natural Progesterone and extra topical Natural Progesterone is usually not needed.

babyr.jpgHowever, some women have early preterm deliveries. In some women, Natural Progesterone can be used to prevent early preterm deliveries. Hassan has proven that women with short cervixes can prevent early preterm deliveries.[4] In my experience, there is a subset of women that may have developed antibodies against Natural Progesterone. These women will have contractions when you start to taper off Natural Progesterone at week 16. The solution is NOT to taper of the Natural Progesterone. The solution is to take Natural Progesterone at 60 mg/day throughout the entire pregnancy. Take Natural Progesterone all the way up to the day of delivery. Natural Progesterone will not stop the delivery. There is no danger to take Natural Progesterone throughout the pregnancy. The only danger is if you forget to take the Natural Progesterone for one day. Forgetting to take the Natural Progesterone one day may trigger a miscarriage.

Beer, MD found antibodies against Natural Progesterone. This is my hypothesis. It may be that these women experiencing miscarriage have antibodies against Natural Progesterone. Antibodies are in the “water” fraction of the blood. Natural Progesterone produced by the body are in the “water” fraction of the blood, since they are bound to a binding protein that makes the Natural Progesterone “water soluble”. Thus, antibodies in water fraction of the blood can attack the Natural Progesterone made by your body that are also in the water fraction of the blood. Thus, antibodies against progesterone can cause miscarriage.

However, topical Natural Progesterone, and NOT oral Natural Progesterone is in the “oil” fraction of the blood. Topical Natural Progesterone is absorbed by the skin and floats around on the chylomicrons and red blood cell membranes. Chylomicrons are the small oil droplets found floating in the blood. Since topical Natural Progesterone is in the oil fraction of the blood, the antibodies in the water fraction of the blood canNOT attack the Natural Progesterone in the oil fraction. Thus, taking TOPICAL Natural Progesterone can stop preterm delivery if the patient has antibodies against Natural Progesterone.

At any rate, if the patient is extremely allergic or has an autoimmune disease like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, I am more likely to suggest taking TOPICAL Natural Progesterone throughout the entire pregnancy. In some cases, when I started to taper off the topical Natural Progesterone at week 16, and contractions started, I went back up on the Natural Progesterone dose. In all of my cases, a successful healthy pregnancy and delivery followed.

There is no danger of continuing Natural Progesterone throughout the entire pregnancy. The only danger is to stop taking Natural Progesterone suddenly, then a miscarriage may occur.

Post Partum Depression Treated with Natural Progesterone

Post partum depression occurs when progesterone levels drop suddenly. Natural Progesterone is the happy hormone. In some women, no Natural Progesterone is the unhappy time. During one day of third trimester pregnancy, the human body produces 400 mg/day of Natural Progesterone. After birth, the human body produces 0 mg/day of Natural Progesterone. Why not give Natural Progesterone? I typically give 20-40 mg/day of Natural Progesterone 3 out of 4 weeks. Topical Natural Progesterone may or may not slow or stop lactation. So, usually I give Natural Progesterone after the milk comes in. If the Natural Progesterone is slowing or stopping lactation, you will have to choose between lactation or depression. Many times, though, Natural Progesterone does not affect lactation.

The Most Important Element - Avoiding Xenoestrogens

The most important thing about using Natural Progesterone is that for severe cases, you must avoid xenoestrogens for the Natural Progesterone to work. These xenoestrogens can be active at very small amounts and will interact with the Natural Progesterone and can even make your disease much worse. It is extremely important to avoid xenoestrogens when using Natural Progesterone especially if you have a severe disease. If you do not have a severe disease, you don’t have to be as careful. Buy any product from us and you will get a list of herbs and chemicals to avoid. We will also provide you with a list of recommended products that are safe to use. I looked through 500 shampoos and only found 3 that were acceptable. Read more about the side effects of Natural Progesterone here.

Summary for Dosing with Natural Progesterone

In conclusion, if you don’t want to conceive immediately, you may take 20-60 mg/day of Natural Progesterone any time you are not bleeding. Taking Natural Progesterone before ovulation will prevent ovulation. More severe cases require more Natural Progesterone. Natural Progesterone must be taken without strong xenoestrogens for it to work with severe diseases. The only thing you really have to be careful about is that you cannot stop Natural Progesterone suddenly if you are using it to prevent miscarriage or preterm delivery.

1. Formby B, Wiley TS. Progesterone Inhibits Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells:Inverse effects on Bcl-2 and P53. Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science 1998 Nov-Dec;28(6):360-9.

2. John Lee, MD What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause,Time Warner Book Group, New York, New York, 2004, p 236.

3. Vern Bullough, Encyclopedia of Birth Control, 2001 ABC-CLIO, Inc. Santa Barbara, CA 19,126.

4. S. S. HASSAN, R. ROMERO, D. VIDYADHARI, S. FUSEY, J. K. BAXTER, M. KHANDELWAL, J. VIJAYARAGHAVAN, Y. TRIVEDI, P. SOMA-PILLAY, P. SAMBAREY, A. DAYAL, V. POTAPOV,J. O’BRIEN, V. ASTAKHOV, O. YUZKO, W. KINZLER, B. DATTEL, H. SEHDEV, L. MAZHEIKA, D. MANCHULENKO, M. T. GERVASI, L. SULLIVAN, A. CONDE-AGUDELO,1 J. A. PHILLIPS, and G. W. CREASY, Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jul; 38(1): 18–31.